Oralni anabolicki steroidi

9 Pùvodní práce 19. Gasche Y, Daali Y, Fathi M, Chiappe A, Cottini S, Dayer P, Desmeules J. Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism. N Engl J Med 2004; 351(27): Jankù I. Farmakokinetické základy dávkování lékù. Praha: Avicenum 1986, Johnson RE, Fudala PJ, Payne R. Buprenorphine: considerations for pain management. J Pain Symptom Manage, 2005; 29(3): Kršiak M.: Novinky ve farmakologii opioidù. In: Kozák J, v léèbì bolesti. Praha: Mladá Fronta ., 2009: Thompson CM, Wojno H, Greiner E, May EL, Rice KC, Selley DE. Activation of G-proteins by morphine and codeine congeners:insights to the relevance of O-and N-demethylated metabolites at mu- and delta-opioid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 308(2): Witter E, Kern SE. Role of morphine s metabolites in analgesia: concepts and controversies. AAPS J 2006; 8(2): Zhou SF. Drugs behave as substrates, inhibitors and inducers of human cytochrome P450 3A4. Curr Drug Metab 2008;9(4): Latta KS, Ginsberg B, Barkin RL. Meperidine: a critical review. Am J Ther 2002; 9(1): Lalovic B, Kharasch E, Hoffer C, Risler L, Liu-Chen LY, Shen DD. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic of oral oxycodone in healthy human subjects: role of circulating active metabolites. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 79(5): Seifert CF, Kennedy S. Meperidine is alive and well in the new millenium: evaluation of meperidine usage and frequency of averse drug reactions. Pharmacotherapy, 2004;24(6): Slanar O, Nobilis M, Kvetina J, Idle JR, Perlík F. CYP2D6 polymorphism, tramadol pharmacokinetics and pupillary response. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62(1): PharmDr. Milada Halaèová, . Oddìlení klinické farmacie NNH Roentgenova Praha 5 Do redakce pøišlo: K publikaci pøijato: BOLEST ROÈNÍK ÈÍSLO 4

The endogenous sex hormones produce dispositional changes in the developing child as well as imparting unique male and female dispositional patterns. Age-related changes have been observed for digoxin disposition and caffeine and theophylline metabolism. These age-related dispositional changes have led to age-dependent dosing recommendations. Studies with caffeine and antipyrine indicate that this change in drug disposition occurs over a short period of time, is seen earlier in girls than in boys, and is related to pubertal (Tanner) stage and the "growth spurt". Significant changes in endogenous sex hormone concentrations occur during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, leading to alterations in drug binding, distribution, and clearance. Oral contraceptives (OCs) inhibit the metabolism of certain drugs resulting in toxicity or lack of efficacy. Rifampin induces the OC metabolism, resulting in decreased clinical effectiveness. Most studies did not examine these kinetic and dynamic interactions between adult and adolescent users. It is estimated that there are over 45 anabolic steroid compounds available for abuse by athletes, and their use is increasing among male and female adolescents. Although the adolescent is at increased risk of developing adverse effects from these agents, a systematic evaluation of the long-term effects of anabolic steroid abuse has not been undertaken in this population. Further research is needed regarding the influence of endogenous and exogenous hormones on adolescent drug kinetics and dynamics. Because of their frequency of use among adolescents, OCs and anabolic steroids require particular emphasis.

Oralni anabolicki steroidi

oralni anabolicki steroidi

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