It seems unfair to rank countries on total medals won when some countries have appeared at the Olympic Games many more times. The following list averages the medals won per Olympiad, so the success of countries can be compared more directly. Based on this calculation, the former Soviet Union was most successful country with 112 medals per appearance compared to the US with 93 medals per appearance. The ranking in this table is based on the average total medals per Olympiad, though whether using total golds or total all medals, the list order is essentially the same.
The results are attributed to the IOC country code as currently displayed by the IOC database. Usually, a single code corresponds to a single National Olympic Committee (NOC). When different codes are displayed for different years, medal counts are combined in the case of a simple change of IOC code (such as from HOL to NED for the Netherlands ) or simple change of country name (such as from Ceylon to Sri Lanka ). As the medals are attributed to each NOC, not all totals include medals won by athletes from that country for another NOC, such as before independence of that country (see individual footnotes for special cases such as combined teams). Names in italic are national entities that no longer exist. The totals of NOCs are not combined with those of their predecessors and successors.